Doping agent classes and doping substances 2019

Prohibited Substances and Methods in Sports 2019 (based on a list provided by the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA)

(Numbers in superscript refer to more detailed references included at the end of the document. Asterisks refer to explanations included under the topic in question.)

The official version of the Prohibited List is maintained by WADA and it is published in English and French on WADA's website. If there are any discrepancies between the Finnish, Swedish, English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.

All prohibited substances are considered "specified substances", excluding the substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5 and S6.a and the prohibited methods included in classes M1, M2 and M3.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION, FOR EXAMPLE, DURING THE TRAINING SEASON AND BETWEEN COMPETITIONS)

S0. Non-approved substances
S1. Anabolic agents
S2. Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics
S3. β2-agonists
S4. Hormone and metabolic modulators
S5. Diuretics and masking agents
M1. Manipulation of blood and blood components
M2. Chemical and physical manipulation
M3. Gene and cell doping

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION

In addition to substances and methods specified under items S0 to S5 and M1 to M3, the following substances and methods are prohibited in-competition:

S6. Stimulants
S7. Narcotics
S8. Cannabinoids
S9. Glucocorticoids

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS

P1. Beta-blockers

Examples of prohibited substances and methods

Substances printed in italics are substances that are not included in WADA's Prohibited List as such. However, according to FINCIS's interpretation, they are included in other substances having similar chemical structure or biological effects or in substances derived from the substances included in the list.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION, FOR EXAMPLE, DURING THE TRAINING SEASON AND BETWEEN COMPETITIONS)

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES

S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The use of all pharmacological substances that have not been covered in this entire list and that have not been approved for medical use on humans by any national health authority (for example, substances that are in the pre-clinical or clinical stage of research, or that are no longer developed or manufactured, and substances whose structure has been modified or substances approved for veterinary use only) is prohibited at all times.

S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

1. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* anabolic androgenic steroids, including, but not limited to:
1-Androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol) 
1-Androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione) 
1-Androsterone (3α-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-ene-17-one) 
1-Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one) 
Acetothiolutamide   
Androstadione 
Bolasterone 
Calusterone 
Clostebol  
Danazol ([1,2]oxazolo[4´,5´:2,3]pregna-4-en-20-yn-17α-ol) 
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) 
Desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol ja 17α-methyl-5α-androst-3-en-17β-ol)
Drostanediol 
Drostanolone 
Ethylestrenol (19-norpregna-4-en-17α-ol) 
Fluoxymesterone 
Formebolone 
Furazabol (17α-methyl[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3´,4´:2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol) 
Gestrinone 
Mepitiostane 
Mestanolone 
Mesterolone 
Metenolone  
Metandienone (=Methandrostenolone; 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) 
Methandriol 
Methandrostenolone 
Methasterone (17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one) 
Methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one) 
Methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one) 
Methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one) 
Methyltestosterone 
Methyltrienolone  
Metribolone (=Methyltrienolone; 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one) 
Mibolerone 
Norboletone 
Norclostebol  
Norethandrolone 
Oxabolone 
Oxandrolone 
Oxymesterone 
Oxymetholone 
Prostanozol (17β-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy]-1´H-pyrazolo[3,4:2,3]-5α-androstane) 
Quinbolone 
Stanozolol 
Stenbolone 
Tetrahydrogestrinone (=THG; 17-hydroxy-18a-homo-19-nor-17α-pregna-4,9,11-trien-3-one) 
Trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects.
 
b. Endogenous** anabolic androgenic steroids, their metabolites and isomers when administered exogenously, including but not limited to the following: 
7α-Hydroxy-DHEA 
7β-Hydroxy-DHEA  
4-Androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol)  
4-Hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) 
5-Androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione) 
7-Keto-DHEA 
19-Norandrostenediol (estr-4-ene-3,17-diol; Bolandiol) 
19-Norandrostenedione (=estr-4-ene-3,17-dione) 
19-Nortestosterone (=Nandrolone)   
Androstanolone (5α-dihydrotestosterone, 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one) 
Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol) 
Androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione) 
Boldenone 
Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) 
Dehydroepiandrosterone (=DHEA; Prasterone, 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one) 
Dihydrotestosterone (=DHT; 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one) 
Epiandrosterone (3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one)
Epi-dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5β-androstan-3-one)
Epitestosterone 
Nandrolone (=19-Nortestosterone) 
Prasterone (=dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) 
Testosterone 1
 
Other examples of metabolites and isomers – added by FINCIS: 
19-norandrosterone
3α-Hydroxy-5α-adrostan-17-one 
5α-Androst-2-ene-17-one (=Delta-2; 2-adrostenone) 
5α-Androstane-3α,17α-diol 
5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol 
5α-Androstane-3β,17α-diol 
5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol 
5β-Androstane-3α,17β-diol 
4-Androstenediol (=Androst-4-ene-3β, 17β-diol) 
19-noretiocholanolone  Androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol 
Androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol 
Androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol 
Androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol 
Androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol  
Androstane (3β-hydroxy-5α-anrostan-17-one)
Androsterone 
Etiocholanolone
 

2. Other anabolic agents, including, but not limited to the following:

Clenbuterol 
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), such as
  Andarine 
  Enobosarm (Ostarine)
  LGD-4033 
  Ostarine 
  RAD140  
Tibolone 
Zeranol 
Zilpaterol
 
Other equivalent agents
 
* "Exogenous" refers to a substance which is not ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
 
* "Endogenous" refers to a substance which is ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
 

S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS, RELATED SUBSTANCES AND MIMETICS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following substances and other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects are prohibited:
 

1. Erythropoietins (EPO) and agents affecting erythropoiesis (i.e. agents stimulating red blood cell production):

1.1. Erythropoietin-receptor agonists

Including, but not limited to: 
CERA (=methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) 
Darbepoetins (=δEPO, dEPO) 
Erythropoietin-mimetic agents and their constructs, such as 
  CNTO-530 
  Peginesatide (=Hematide) 
Epoetins (=Erythropoietins) 
Erythropoietins (=EPO, RhEPO) 
Erythropoietin fusion proteins (EPO-Fc)
 

1.2. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activating agents

Including, but not limited to: 
Argon 
Cobalt 
Daprodustat (GSK1278863)
Molidustat (BAY 85-3934)
Roxadustat (FG-4592)
Vadadustat (AKB-6548) 
Xenon
 
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) is not prohibited.
 

1.3. GATA inhibitors

Including, but not limited to: 
  K-11706
 

1.4. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) inhibitors

Including, but not limited to: 
  Luspatercept 
  Sotatercept
 

1.5. Innate repair receptor agonists

Including, but not limited to: 
Asialo-erythropoietin 
Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO)
 

2. Peptide hormones and their releasing factors

 
2.1. Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and luteinising hormone (LH) and their releasing factors in males are prohibited
Including, but not limited to: 
Buserelin 2
Corifollitropin 2
Chorionic gonadotrophin alfa (hCG) 2
Deslorelin 2
Gonadorelin 2
Gonadotropin 2
Goserelin 2
Histrelin 2
Human chorionic gonadothrophin (hCG) 2
Leuprorelin 2
Luteinising hormone (=LH; lutropin alfa) 2
Menotropin (=gonadotropin) 2
Nafarelin 2
Triptorelin 2
 

2.2. Corticotrophins and their releasing factors:

Including, but not limited to: 
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) 
Corticoliberin (=CRF; CRH) 
Corticorelin
 

2.3. Growth Hormone (GH), its fragments and releasing factors

Including, but not limited to: 
Growth hormone (=GH, somatotropin, somatropin) 
 
Growth hormone fragments, including, but not limited to, 
  AOD-9604 
  hGH 176-191 
 
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and its analogues, such as 
  CJC-1293 
  CJC-1295 
  Sermorelin 
  Tesamorelin 
 
Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), such as 
  Ghrelin
  Lenomorelin (ghrelin) 
  Ghrelin mimetics, such as 
   Anamorelin 
   Ipamorelin
   Macimorelin
   Tabimorelin 
 
Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP), such as 
  Alexamorelin 
  Examorelin (hexarelin) 
  GRRP-1 
  GHRP-2 (=pralmorelin) 
  GRRP-3 
  GHRP-4 
  GRRP-5 
  GHRP-6 
  Hexarelin
  Somatoliberin (SRF; SRH)
 

3. Growth factors and growth factor modulators

 
Including, but not limited to: 
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) 
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) 
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and its analogues, such as 
  LR3IGF-1 (=Long-chain IGF-1)
  Mecasermin (IGF-1) 
Mechano growth factors (MGFs) 
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 
Thymosin-β4 and its derivatives, e.g. TB-500 
Vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
 
Other growth factors and growth factor modulators affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilisation, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching.
 

S3. β2 AGONISTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

All selective and non-selective β2 agonists, including all optical isomers, are prohibited, excluding inhaled formoterol, salbutamol and salmeterol with limited dosages (more information provided further in this document).
 
Including, but not limited to: 
Bambuterol 
Bitolterol
Broxaterol 
Carbuterol 
Fenoterol 
Formoterol 3
Higenamine 
Indacaterol 
Olodaterol 
Procaterol 
Reproterol 
Rimiterol 
Salbutamol 4
Salmeterol 5
Terbutaline
Tretoquinol (trimetoquinol) 
Tulobuterol 
Vilanterol
 
The following are exceptions to the above and not prohibited:
- Inhaled salbutamol: maximum 1,600 micrograms over 24 hours in divided doses not to exceed 800 micrograms over 12 hours, starting from any dose
- Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of 54 micrograms over 24 hours.
- Inhaled salmeterol: maximum 200 micrograms over 24 hours
 
If the concentration of formoterol in urine exceeds 40 ng/ml, or if the concentration of salbutamol exceeds 1,000 ng/ml, the use of the substance is considered to have been non-medical and the result is interpreted as an adverse analytical finding, unless the athlete, by means of a controlled pharmacokinetic investigation, is able to prove that the abnormal finding is due to the medicinal use of formoterol or salbutamol by inhalation not exceeding the above-mentioned maximum dose.
 

S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

 
The following hormone and metabolic modulators are prohibited:
 

1. Aromatase inhibitors

Including, but not limited to:
2-Androstenol (5α-androst-2-en-17-ol);
2-Androstenone (5α-androst-2-ene-17-one);
3-Androstenol (5α-androst-3-en-17-ol);
3-Androstenone (5α-androst-3-en-17-one);
4-Androstene-3,6,17-trioni (6-oxo) 
4-Hydroxyandrostenedione 
Aminoglutethimide 
Anastrozole 
Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (=androstatrienedione; ATD; keto-etiochol-triene) 
Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione (=arimistane) 
Arimistane
Exemestane 
Fadrozole 
Formestane 
Letrozole 
Testolactone 
Vorozole
 

2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)

Including, but not limited to: 
Arzoxifene 
Bazedoxifene 
Droloxifene 
Fispemifene 
Idoxifene 
Lasofoxifene 
Ospemifene 
Raloxifene 
Tamoxifen 
Toremifene
 

3. Other anti-estrogenic substances

Including, but not limited to: 
Clomifene 
Cyclofenil
Fulvestrant 
 

4. Agents preventing activin receptor IIB activation

Including, but not limited to: 
Activin A-neutralizing antibodies
Activin receptor IIB competitors, such as
  Decoy activin receptors, such as
     ACE-031
Anti-activin receptor IIB antibodies, such as
  Bimagrumab
Myostatin inhibitors, such as
  Agents reducing or ablating myostatin expression
  Myostatin-binding proteins, e.g.
    Follistatin
    Myostatin propeptide
  Myostatin-neutralizing antibodies, e.g.
     Domagrozumab
     Landogrozumab
     Stamulumab
 

5. Metabolic modulators

 

5.1. Activators of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)

Including, but not limited to: 
AICAR 
  (=5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofurano-side)
SR9009 
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists, such as 
2-(2-methyl-4-((4-methyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)thiazol-5-yl)methylthio)phenoxy)acetic acid (GW1516, GW501516)
 

5.2. Insulins and insulin-mimetics

Including, but not limited to: 
Human insulin 
Insulin aspart 
Insulin degludec 
Insulin detemir 
Insulin glargine 
Insulin glulisine 
Insulin lispro 
Protamine insulin
 

5.3. Meldonium (mildronate)

 

5.4. Trimetazidine

 

S5. DIURETICS AND MASKING AGENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

 
The following diuretics*** and masking agents*** are prohibited, as are other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effects: 
Amiloride 
Acetazolamide 
Bendroflumethiazide 
Benzthiazide 
Brinzolamide 6
Bumetanide 
Canrenone 
Chlortalidone 
Chlorothiazide 
Clopamide  
Cyclothiazide 
Diclofenamide 
Dorzolamide 6
Eplerenone 
Etacrynic acid 
Furosemide 
Hydrochlorothiazide 
Indapamide 
Mefruside 
Metolazone  
Potassium canrenoate 
Spironolactone 
Triamterene 
Trichlormethiazide 
Vaptans (V2 antagonists) 
  Conivaptan 
  Lixivaptan 
  Mozavaptan 
  Satavaptan 
  Tolvaptan 
Argipressin
Desmopressin 
  (=antidiuretic hormone; ADH, vasopressin) 
Terlipressin
Probenecid
 
Plasma expanders
Including, but not limited to: 
Intravenous administration: 
Albumin 
Dextran 
Gelatin 
Hydroxyethyl starch (=HES) 
Mannitol 
Polygelin 
Polyhydroxyethyl starch
 
***When a substance has a limit for its concentration in urine, the use of the substance together with a diuretic or masking agent either in-competition (e.g. cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine) or both in and out-of-competition (e.g. formoterol, salbutamol) requires – irrespective of the amount used – that the athlete has also been granted a TUE for the substance in addition to a TUE granted for the diuretic or masking agent.7
 
Drospirenone, pamabrom, and ophthalmic use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g. brinzolamide or dorzolamide) are not prohibited.
 
Local administration of felypressin in dental anaesthesia is not prohibited.8
 

PROHIBITED METHODS  

M1. MANIPULATION OF BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following methods are prohibited:
 
1. The administration or reintroduction of any quantity of autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin into the circulatory system is prohibited.
 
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen. Including, but not limited to: Perfluoro compounds (perflubron and other fluorocarbons and perfluorochemicals)
Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP, OXY111A)
Efaproxiral (RSR13) and substances derived from it 
 
Modified haemoglobin products (such as artificial haemoglobin compounds having a haemoglobin-like effect, haemoglobin-based blood substitutes and microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
The inhalation of supplemental oxygen is not prohibited.
 
3. Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means is prohibited.
 

M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following methods are prohibited:
 
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, to alter the integrity or validity of samples collected during doping control is prohibited. Such methods include, but are not limited to, urine substitution or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
 
2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than a 100 mL per a 12-hour period are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital treatments, surgical procedures or clinical diagnostic investigations.9

 

M3. GENE AND CELL DOPING (PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES)

The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
 
1. The use of polymers of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogues.
 
2. The use of gene-editing agents designed to alter genome sequences and/or the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
 
3. The use of normal or genetically modified cells.
 

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION

In addition to substances and methods specified in classes S0 to S5 and M1 to M3, the following substances are prohibited in-competition:
 

 

Prohibited substances

 

S6. STIMULANTS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

All stimulants, including all optical isomers, e.g. d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited.
Stimulants include: 
a: Non-specified stimulants:
Adrafinil 
Amfepramone 
Amfetamine 10
Amfetaminil 
Amiphenazole 
Benfluorex 
Benzylpiperazine (BZP) 
Bromantan 
Carphedon
Clobenzorex 
Cocaine 
Cropropamide 
Crotetamide  
Dexamfetamine 10
Dexfenfluramine  
Fencamine  
Fenetylline 
Fenfluramine 
Fenproporex 
Fonturacetam (=4-phenylpiracetam; carphedon) 
Furfenorex 
Lisdexamfetamine 11
Mefenorex 
Mephentermine 
Mesocarb 
Methamfetamine (d-) 
Modafinil 16
Norfenfluramine 
Para-methylamfetamine (p-methylamfetamine) 
Phendimetrazine 
Phentermine 
Prenylamine 
Prolintane
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance in accordance with section b.
 
b: Specified stimulants:
Including, but not limited to: 
1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine) (TFMPP) 
1-(3-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) 
1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)piperazin (MeOPP) 
1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) 
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7) 
2,5 Dimethoxy-4-bromoamfetamine (DOB) 
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) 
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenetylamine (2C-T-2) 
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamfetamine (DOI) 
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I) 
2-amino-4-methylhexane (=methylhexaneamine) 26
2-amino-4-methylpentane (DMBA)
3-fluoromethcathinone 
3-methylhexan-2-amine (1,2-dimethylpentylamine)
3,4-Methylenedioxyhydroxyamfetamine (MDOH) 
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amfetamine (MDHOET) 
4-amino-2-methylpentane (DMBA) 
4-AMP (DMBA) 
4-fluoroamfetamine 
4-methylhexan-2-amine (methylhexaneamine)
4-methylpentan-2-amine (1,3-dimethylbutylamine)
5-methylhexan-2-amine (1,4-dimethylpentylamine)
α-PVP (α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone)
Adrenaline 12
AMP citrate (DMBA) 
Apraclonidine 20
Bemegride
Benzfetamine 
Brimonidine 21
Bromo-benzodifuranyl-isopropylamine (=ABDF) 
Buphenine (=Diethylproprion) 
Cathine (=Norpseudoephedrine) 27
Cathinone and its analogues 
Chlorphentermine  Diethylproprion 
Cyclazodone 
Dimetamfetamine (Dimethylamfetamine) 
Dimethylamylamine (DMAA; methylhexaneamine) 26
DMBA 
Doxapram 
Ephedrine 13
Ephedrone (Methcathinone) 
Epinephrine (=Adrenaline) 12
Etafedrine 
Etamivan 
Etilamfetamine 
Etilefrine 14
Ethylcathinon 
Famprofazone 
Fenbutrazate 
Fencamfamin 
Fortane (=methylhexaneamine) 26
Geranamine (=methylhexaneamine) 26
Heptaminol 
Hydroxyamfetamine 
Isometheptene 
Levmetamfetamine 
Mazindol 
Meclofenoxate 
Mephedrone
Methamfetamine (L-isomer) (=Levmetamfetamine) 
Methcathinone
Methedrone 
Methylaminorex (MAX) 
Methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDA) 
Methylenedioxyethylamfetamine (MDEA) 
Methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA) 
Methylephedrine 13
Methylhexaneamine (=dimethylpentylamine) 26
Methylphenidate 15
Methylpentylamine26
Midodrine 28
Nikethamide 
Noradrenaline 17
Norfenefrine 
Norpseudoephedrine (=Cathine) 27
Octopamine 
Ortetamine
Oxilofrine (=Methylsynefrine) 
Parahydroxyamphetamine (=Hydroxyamfetamine) 
Parametoxyamfetamine 
Parametoxymethylamfetamine 
Pemoline 
Pentetrazol 
Penthylamine (=Methylhexaneamine) 26
Phenethylamine and its derivatives 
Phenmetrazine 
Phenpromethamine 
Picrotoxin 
Propylhexedrine 
Pseudoephedrine 18
Pyrovalerone 
α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) 
Selegiline 19
Sibutramine 
Strychnine 
Tenamfetamine (=methylenedioxyamfetamine) 
Trimetoxyamfetamine (TMA-2) 
Tuaminoheptane
 
In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects.
 
The following are not prohibited: topically administered imidazole derivatives (such as xylometazoline, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and tetryzoline) and stimulants included in the 2019 Monitoring Program (bupropion; phenylephrine, i.e. metaoxedrin; phenylpropanolamine, i.e. norephedrine; caffeine; nicotine; pipradrol, and synephrine).
 
Clonidine is not prohibited.
 
Adrenaline (epinephrine) is permitted when administered locally (e.g. nasal or eye drops) or with local anaesthesia.
 
Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 mg/l.
 
Ephedrine and methylephedrine are prohibited when the concentration of either in urine is greater than 10 mg/l.
 
Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 mg/l. 18
 

S7. NARCOTICS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

The following narcotics are prohibited: 
 
3-methylfentanyl (TMF)
Alfentanil 22
Buprenorphine 22
Dextromoramide 
Diacetylmorphine (=heroin) 
Diamorphine (heroin) 
Fentanyl and substances derived from it 
Heroin 
Hydromorphone 22
Methadone 22
Morphine 22
Nicomorphine 
Oxycodone (=oxycone ) 22
Oxymorphone 
Pentazocine 
Pethidine 
Remifentanil 22
Sufentanil 22
 
 

S8. CANNABINOIDS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

The following cannabinoids are prohibited: 
 
Natural cannabinoids, such as 
   Cannabis 23
   Hashish 23
      Hashish oil 23
      Marijuana 23
Synthetic cannabinoids, such as 
   Synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 23
   Other cannabimimetics
 
Cannabidiol is not prohibited.
 

S9. GLUCOCORTICOIDS (PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION)

All glucocorticoids are prohibited when administered orally, rectally, intravenously or intramuscularly.
 
Including, but not limited to: 
Betamethasone 24
Budesonide 24
Cortisone 24
Deflazacort 24
Dexamethasone 24
Fludrocortisone 24
Fluticasone 24
Hydrocortisone 24
Methylprednisolone 24
Prednisolone 24
Prednisone 24
Triamcinolone 24
 

SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS

P1. BETA-BLOCKERS (PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS)

Including, but not limited to: 
Acebutolol 25
Alprenolol 
Atenolol 25
Betaxolol 25
Bisoprolol 25
Bunolol 
Carteolol 
Carvedilol 25
Celiprolol 25
Esmolol 25
Labetalol 25
Landiolol
Levobunolol 
Metipranolol 
Metoprolol 25
Nadolol 
Nebivolol 25
Oxprenolol 
Penbutolol 
Pindolol 25
Practolol 
Propranolol 25
Sotalol 25
Timolol 25
 
In addition, other substances with a similar chemical structure or biological effects.
 
Beta-blockers are prohibited in the following sports: 
Shooting***** (ISSF, IPC) 
Automobile (FIA) 
Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS) 
Darts (WDF) 
Freestyle (aerials ja halfpipe) (FIS) 
Golf (IGF) 
Archery***** (WA) 
Snowboarding (halfpipe ja big air) (FIS) 
Ski jumping (FIS)
Underwater sports (in constant-weight apnoea with or without fins, dynamic apnoea with and without fins, free immersion apnoea, Jump Blue apnoea, spearfishing, static apnoea, target shooting, and variable weight apnoea) (CMAS)
 
The name of the international federation is given in parenthesis.
 
Beta-blockers are prohibited only in-competition. However, in sports marked with ***** (shooting and archery), beta-blockers are prohibited both in- and out-of-competition.
 
The international sports federation for shooting sports, ISSF, has stated that beta-blockers are not permitted in any competitions under the federation, even with a Therapeutic Use Exemption. Based on ISSF's requirement, the national anti-doping organisations must also comply with this policy. This means that shooters within the scope of FINCIS's level determination (shooters participating in the Finnish Championships in one of the following categories: open class for men and women and over 15-year-old juniors (rifle, pistol, shotgun and running target shooting)) are no longer allowed to use beta-blockers in national competitions or out-of-competition – not even with a Therapeutic Use Exemption. In addition, previously granted Therapeutic Use Exemptions are therefore no longer valid. FINCIS's Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee can grant only retroactive Therapeutic Use Exemptions for beta-blocker use for athletes not within the scope of FINCIS's level determination.
 

Specifications

1 The use of testosterone is prohibited at all times. An athlete may be granted a therapeutic use exemption for testosterone only when comprehensive examinations show an unambiguous organic reason for the inadequate secretion of testosterone, such as primary or secondary hypogonadism. An athlete will not be granted a therapeutic use exemption for testosterone merely for having somewhat low testosterone levels in their serum or attaining certain scores in subjective evaluation scales. Nor is a therapeutic use exemption granted for testosterone in cases where functional testosterone deficiency is caused by aging, obesity, overtraining, stress, iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia or other reasons. In justified cases, a therapeutic use exemption may be granted for low-dose short-term use of testosterone to start puberty.

2 The use of human chorionic gonadotrophin, luteinising hormone and their releasing factors is prohibited at all times and only for male athletes.

3 Formoterol is permitted when administered through pulmonary inhalation, with a maximum dosage of 54 micrograms/day. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods.

If the concentration of formoterol in urine exceeds 40 ng/ml, the use of the substance is considered to have been non-medical and the result is interpreted as an adverse analytical finding, unless the athlete, by means of a controlled pharmacokinetic investigation, is able to prove that the abnormal finding is due to the medicinal use of formoterol administered through pulmonary inhalation (maximum dosage 54 micrograms/day).
 

4 Salbutamol is permitted only as pulmonary inhalations, nevertheless for a maximum of 1,600 micrograms over 24 hours in divided doses not to exceed 800 microgramsover 12 hours starting from any dose. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods.

If the concentration of salbutamol in urine exceeds 1,000 nanograms per millilitre, the use of the substance is considered to have been non-medical and the result is interpreted as an adverse analytical finding, unless the athlete, by means of a controlled pharmacokinetic investigation, is able to prove that the abnormal finding is due to the medicinal use of salbutamol administered through pulmonary inhalation (maximum dosage 1,600 micrograms/day, nevertheless not exceeding 800 micrograms within a 12 hour period).

N.B. Salbutamol may be inhaled in various dosage forms: as an inhalation powder, as an inhalation spray or as a respirator solution. Inhalation powder and inhalation spray products are manufactured so that they produce a very precise dosage, either 100 or 200 micrograms per a single dose. However, when using the respirator solution, a single inhaled dose recommended by the manufacturer (2,500 or 5,000 micrograms) already exceeds the maximum daily dose according to anti-doping legislation, and the salbutamol content of the urine may rise above the permitted limit. The respirator solution is intended for the treatment of severe asthma attacks, primarily in hospital environments. The use of salbutamol as a respirator solution requires a well-founded therapeutic use exemption, as does the use of salbutamol as tablets or an oral solution.

5 Salmeterol is permitted when administered through pulmonary inhalation, with a maximum dosage of 200 micrograms/day. Its use is prohibited at all times in larger doses through pulmonary inhalation or other administration methods.

6 Brinzolamide and dorzolamide are not prohibited when administered in eye drops. Its use through other administration methods is prohibited at all times.

7 When a substance has a limit for its concentration in urine, the use of the substance together with a diuretic or masking agent either in-competition (e.g. cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine) or both in and out-of-competition (e.g. formoterol, salbutamol) requires – irrespective of the amount used – that the athlete has also been granted a TUE for the substance in addition to a TUE granted for the diuretic or masking agent.

8 The use of felypressin WITH a local anaesthetic during a dental operation is not prohibited.

9 Salt, sugar, iron and nutrient solutions are not, as such, mentioned on the list of prohibited substances and methods. However, intravenous infusions and/or injections of fluids are prohibited at all times if the volume of the infused liquid exceeds 100 millilitres in 12 hours, with the exception of justified infusions administered during hospital visits (but not ambulatory care), surgical procedures or clinical diagnostic examinations.

10 Amfetamine and dexamfetamine are prohibited in-competition, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for amfetamine and dexamfetamine is approximately 7 days.

11 Lisdexamfetamine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for lisdexamfetamine is approximately 5 days.

12 Adrenaline is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. Adrenaline is, nevertheless, permitted when administered topically (e.g. nasal or eye drops) or with local anaesthesia.

If adrenaline is needed to treat an acute and serious disorder (e.g. injection to treat anaphylactic shock) and the athlete intends to take part in a competition within the next 24 hours, the athlete has to apply for a retroactive therapeutic use exemption immediately after the treatment. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for adrenaline is approximately 24 hours.

13 Ephedrine and methylephedrine are prohibited in-competition, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of ephedrine or methylephedrine in urine may not exceed 10 micrograms/ml. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for ephedrine is approximately 4 days.

14 Etilefrine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for etilefrine is approximately 3 days. 

15 Methylphenidate is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for methylphenidate products is approximately 7 days.

16 Modafinil is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for modafinil is approximately 7 days.

17 Noradrenaline is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for noradrenaline is approximately 24 hours.

18 Pseudoephedrine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of pseudoephedrine in urine must not exceed 150 micrograms/ml. According to studies performed by WADA, this limit will not be exceeded with the normal therapeutic dosage of pseudoephedrine (e.g. when taking one 60 mg capsule 1–3 times/day, one 120 mg depot tablet twice/day, or one 240 mg depot tablet once/day) if an athlete stops taking pseudoephedrine 24 hours before competition. In other words, the withdrawal time for pseudoephedrine is 24 hours.

Rhinitis or nasal congestion due to allergies is not alone sufficient grounds for granting a therapeutic use exemption for the use of pseudoephedrine, since permitted nasal sprays as well as permitted antihistamines may be used during the 24 hour period preceding a competition.

19 Selegiline (deprenyl) is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for selegiline products is approximately 7 days. 

20 Apraclonidine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for apraclonidine is approximately 3 days. When administered topically (e.g. as eye drops), apraclonidine is nevertheless permitted. 

21 Brimonidine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for brimonidine is approximately 2 days. When administered topically (e.g. as eye drops or as a gel), brimonidine is nevertheless permitted. 

22 Narcotics (strong opioids) are prohibited during competitions, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for alfentanil is approximately 2 days, for buprenorphine products approximately 30 days, for hydromorphone approximately 7 days, for methadone approximately 30 days, for morphine approximately 7 days, for oxycodone approximately 7 days, for remifentanil approximately 2 days and for sufentanil approximately 8 days.

23 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. 

24 Glucocorticoids are prohibited in-competition, and they are monitored only in samples collected in-competition. All glucocorticoids are prohibited when administered orally, rectally, intravenously or intramuscularly. Other routes of administration (e.g. pulmonary inhalation, intradermal, intra-articular, periarticular, peritendinous, used as topical preparations for treating ophthalmic, aural, auricular, gingival, buccal, nasal, perianal or dermatological disorders) are permitted.

Intramuscularly administered glucocorticoids may be detected in analyses for a period of up to eight (8) weeks. When administered as tablets, the withdrawal period is approximately seven (7) days.

25 Beta blockers are prohibited in shooting (ISSF, IPC) and archery (WA) at all times. In particular sports (see the list below), they are prohibited in-competition and, for this reason, beta blockers are monitored only in samples collected in-competition (P1.).  In the following sports (the international organisation is shown in brackets), beta blockers are prohibited only in-competition: automobile (FIA), billiards (all disciplines, WCBS), darts (WDF), freestyle (aerials and halfpipe, FIS), golf (IGF), snowboarding (halfpipe and big air, FIS), ski jumping (FIS) and diving (constant-weight apnoea with and without fins, dynamic apnoea with and without fins, free immersion apnoea, Jump Blue apnoea, spearfishing, static apnoea, target shooting and variable weight apnoea, CMAS). In addition, the international sports federation for shooting sports, ISSF, has stated that beta blockers are not permitted in any competitions under the federation, even with a therapeutic use exemption.

According to FINCIS' estimate, the approximate withdrawal periods for beta blockers are as follows: acebutolol 14 days, atenolol 14 days, betaxolol 14 days, bisoprolol 14 days, esmolol 5 days, carvedilol 9 days, labetalol 7 days, metoprolol 5 days, nebivolol 30 days, propranolol 5 days, celiprolol 5 days, sotalol 7 days and timolol 7 days. The withdrawal periods apply only to disciplines in which the beta blockers are prohibited in-competition.

26 Methylhexaneamine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. Some nutritional supplements contain methylhexaneamine (also known as 2-amino-4-methylhexaneamine; dimethylamylamine; DMAA; fortane; geranamine; methylpentylamine; pentylamine). According to FINCIS' estimate, the withdrawal period for methylhexaneamine is approximately 7 days.

27 Cathine is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition. The concentration of cathine in urine must not exceed 5 micrograms/ml.

28 This pharmaceutical is prohibited in-competition, and it is monitored only in samples collected in-competition.

Pekka Rauhala

Pekka Rauhala

Medical expert

phone: +358 400 801 411

e-mail: pekka.rauhala@suek.fi

Anna Simula

Anna Simula

Pharmacist, TUEs

phone: +358 400 338 510

e-mail: anna.simula@suek.fi